Glossary of Magnet Sciencee
Anisotropic Magnet:A magnet having a preferred direction of magnetic orientation, so that the magnetic
characteristics are optimum in that direction.|
Coercive force, Hc: The demagnetizing force, measured in Oersted, necessary to reduce observed induction,
B to zero after the magnet has previously been brought to saturation.
Curie temperature: The temperature at which the parallel alignment of elementary magnetic moments completely
disappears, and the materials is no longer able to hold magnetization.
Flux: The condition existing in a medium subjected to a magnetizing force. This quantity is characterized by
the fact that an electromotive force is induced in a conductor surrounding the flux at any time the flux changes in
magnitude. The unit of flux in the GCS system is Maxwell. One Maxwell equals one volt x seconds.
Gauss, Gs: A unit of magnetic flux density in the GCS system; the lines of magnetic flux per square inch.
1 Gauss equals 0.0001 Tesla in the SI system.
Hysteresis Loop: A closed curve obtained for a material by plotting corresponding values off magnetic
induction, B (on the abscissa), against magnetizing force, H (on the ordinate).
Induction, B: The magnetic flux per unit area of a section normal to the direction of flux. The unit of
induction is Gauss in the GCS system
Intrinsic Coercive Force, Hci: An intrinsic ability of a material to resist demagnetization. Its value is
measured in Oersted and corresponds to zero intrinsic induction in the material after saturation. Permanent magnets
with high intrinsic coercive force are referred as "Hard" permanent magnets, which usually associated with high
Irreversible Loss: Defined as the partial demagnetization of a magnet caused by external fields or other
factors. These losses are only recoverable by remagnetization. Magnets can be stabilized to prevent the variation of
performance caused by irreversible losses.
Isotropic Magnets: A magnet material whose magnetic properties are the same in any direction, and which can
therefore be magnetized in any direction without loss of magnetic characteristics.
Magnetic Flex: The total magnetic induction over a given area.
Magnetizing Force: the magnetomotive force per unit length at any point in a magnetic circuit. The unit of
the magnetizing force is Oersted in the GCS system
Maximum Energy Product, (BH)max.: There is a point at the Hysteresis Loop at which the product of magnetizing
force H and induction B reaches a maximum. The maximum value is called the Maximum Energy Product. At this point, the
volume of magnet material required to project a given energy into its surrounding is a minimum. This parameter is
generally used to describe how "strong" this permanent magnet material is. Its unit is Gauss Oersted. One MGOe means
1,000,000 Gauss Oersted.
Oersted, Oe: A unit of magnetizing force in GCS system. 1 Oersted equals 79.58 A/m in SI system.
Permeability, Recoil: The Average slope of the minor hysteresis loop.
Polymer-Bonding: Magnet powders are mixed with a polymer carrier matrix, such as epoxy. The magnets are formed
in a certain shape, when the carrier is solidified.
Rare Earths: A family of elements with an atomic number from 57 to 71 plus 21 and 39. They are lanthanum,
cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium,
ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, and yttrium.
Remenance, Bd: The magnetic induction which remains in a magnetic circuit after the removal of an applied
magnetizing force. If there is an air gap in the circuit, the remenance will be less than the residual induction, Br.
Reversible Temperature Coefficient: A measure of the reversible changes in flux caused by temperature
Residual Induction, Br: A value of induction at the point at Hysteresis Loop, at which Hysteresis loop
crosses the B axis at zero magnetizing force. The Br represents the maximum magnetic flux density output of this
material without an external magnetic field.
Saturation: A condition under which induction of a ferromagnetic material has reach its maximum value with
the increase of applied magnetizing force. All elementary magnetic moments have become oriented in one direction at
the saturation status.
Sintering: The bonding of powder compacts by the application of heat to enable one or more of several
mechanisms of atom movement into the particle contact interfaces to occur; the mechanisms are: viscous flow, liquid
phase solution-precipitation, surface diffusion, bulk diffusion, and evaporation-condensation. Densification is a
usual result of sintering.
Surface Coatings: Unlike Samarium Cobalt, Alnico and ceramic materials, which are corrosion resistant,
Neodymium Iron Boron magnets are susceptible to corrosion. Base upon of magnets' applications, following coatings
can be chosen to apply on surfaces of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets.
||Corrosion-Resistant in Salt Fog (Hr)
||PCT (Hr) at 120 °C, 2 atm, 100% RH|
||> 8 µm
||> 10 µm
||> 12 µm
||15 - 30 µm